版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得用于商业用途。 https://blog.csdn.net/espressif/article/details/78541435

一: MQTT

1.1 MQTT 介绍

MQTT(Message Queuing Telemetry Transport,消息队列遥测传输)是IBM开发的一个即时通讯协议,有可能成为物联网的重要组成部分。该协议支持所有平台,几乎可以把所有联网物品和外部连接起来,被用来当做传感器和致动器(比如通过Twitter让房屋联网)的通信协议。
MQTT协议是为大量计算能力有限,且工作在低带宽、不可靠的网络的远程传感器和控制设备通讯而设计的协议,它具有以下主要的几项特性:
1、使用发布/订阅消息模式,提供一对多的消息发布,解除应用程序耦合
2、对负载内容屏蔽的消息传输
3、使用 TCP/IP 提供网络连接
4、有三种消息发布服务质量
"至多一次",消息发布完全依赖底层 TCP/IP 网络。会发生消息丢失或重复。这一级别可用于如下情况,环境传感器数据,丢失一次读记录无所谓,因为不久后还会有第二次发送。
"至少一次",确保消息到达,但消息重复可能会发生。
"只有一次",确保消息到达一次。这一级别可用于如下情况,在计费系统中,消息重复或丢失会导致不正确的结果。
5、小型传输,开销很小(固定长度的头部是 2 字节),协议交换最小化,以降低网络流量
6、使用 Last Will 和 Testament 特性通知有关各方客户端异常中断的机制

1.2 MQTT工作流

step 1. 启动 MQTT 服务器

MQTT 服务器是接受 MQTT 客户端的订阅和发布请求的网络实体。开发者可以根据 MQTT 协议规范 设计 MQTT server 和 MQTT client.通常 MQTT server 有很多开源项目提供,于是 MQTT server 默认为 MQTT broker.
MQTT broker: 即MQTT代理
a) MQTT broker 提供 MQTT server服务,处理客户端请求,发送心跳包等。
b) 提供 MQTT client 服务,提供订阅和发布的client端功能
c) 通常运行在处理能力较强的PC上或集群服务器上。
可供选择的MQTT broker有:
a) Mosquitto
b) EMQTT
c) HiveMQ等
d) 各个云平台提供的MQTT服务,如:微软云Azure-MQTT 、亚马逊云Amazon-MQTT等
在本文的二三四节,我们将使用Mosquitto 作为我们的 MQTT broker.

step 2. MQTT 客户端订阅

MQTT subscribe client 将向 MQTT broker订阅一个或者多个主题(topic).以后MQTT broker 收到MQTT publish client 发布消息后,将会向订阅了该主题的 MQTT subscribe client发布该消息。换句话说,如果没有client订阅主题,那么发布者发布消息将毫无意义;如果有很多订阅者,没有发布者,那么订阅也将毫无意义。MQTT订阅端通常是终端设备。

step 3. MQTT客户端发布消息

MQTT publish client 将向 MQTT broker 发布自己的消息,每个消息包含topic和payload.
MQTT broker 根据 topic 将消息转发给感兴趣的 client。
主题名称topic通常是一个简单的字符串,使用分层结构,使用左斜杠分隔。如 /yourhome/livingroom/temperature
有效载荷payload完全依赖于使用场景,他可以是二进制流,也可以是JSON数据。

step 4. MQTT订阅端接受数据

MQTT subscribe client将会收到MQTT broker发给它感兴趣的订阅主题的相关消息,同时进行对应处理。

实例展示

张先生承包了1000个大棚种植作物,每个大棚里面有温度控制系统,不同季节需对不同作物采用不同的温度,如何高效直观来控制这些大棚的温度呢?下面是一种可行高效的解决办法:
张先生为每个大棚配置一颗精致的WiFi芯片,比如ESP32,连接温度控制系统。ESP32支持连接微软云,和微软云交互温度数据。微软云支持MQTT协议,微软云可作为MQTT broker。
每颗ESP32作为 MQTT订阅段,订阅温度信息,比如:
subscribe /plant/peanut/UpdateTemperature
1
以后张先生可以不用去大棚里面实际操作温度控制系统,只需要在家中,控制手机端APP,发布MQTT消息就可以控制大棚温度。比如:
MQTT publish /plant/peanut/UpdateTemperature "temperature:15"
1
那么peanut所在大棚的ESP32通过订阅消息MQTT主题,收到15摄氏度的请求后,将这个命令,传到温度控制系统来控制大棚实际温度。同时,张先生也可以通过微软云查看所有大棚的温度变化信息等。这样,真正实现运筹帷幄家中,决胜千里之外。

二: mosquitto

mosquitto是一款很优秀的 MQTT broker.一款实现了消息推送协议 MQTT v3.1 的开源消息代理软件,提供轻量级的,支持可发布/可订阅的的消息推送模式,使设备对设备之间的短消息通信变得简单。mosquitto 即可以作为 MQTT Server,也可以作为MQTT client.
mosquitto 下载和安装:
ubuntu16.04下可直接使用下面方式安装:
$ sudo apt-add-repository ppa:mosquitto-dev/mosquitto-ppa
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install mosquitto
安装完可查看当前mosquitto版本:
$ mosquitto --help
1

三: mosquitto 服务器 SSL/TLS 配置

3.1 证书生成脚本

同上一篇博客相同http://blog.csdn.net/ustccw/article/details/76691248#t8,使用 makefile.sh 来产生所需的所有SSL/TLS 双向认证文件。rmfile.sh 来删除产生过的文件。
makefile.sh
# * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
# notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
# documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
# * Neither the name of the axTLS project nor the names of its
# contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
# from this software without specific prior written permission.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
# "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
# A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
# CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
# SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
# TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
# DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY
# OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
# NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
# THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#

#
# Generate the certificates and keys for testing.
#


PROJECT_NAME="TLS Project"

# Generate the openssl configuration files.
cat > ca_cert.conf << EOF
[ req ]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
prompt = no

[ req_distinguished_name ]
O = $PROJECT_NAME Dodgy Certificate Authority
EOF

cat > server_cert.conf << EOF
[ req ]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
prompt = no

[ req_distinguished_name ]
O = $PROJECT_NAME
CN = 192.168.111.100
EOF

cat > client_cert.conf << EOF
[ req ]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
prompt = no

[ req_distinguished_name ]
O = $PROJECT_NAME Device Certificate
CN = 192.168.111.101
EOF

mkdir ca
mkdir server
mkdir client
mkdir certDER

# private key generation
openssl genrsa -out ca.key 1024
openssl genrsa -out server.key 1024
openssl genrsa -out client.key 1024


# cert requests
openssl req -out ca.req -key ca.key -new \
-config ./ca_cert.conf
openssl req -out server.req -key server.key -new \
-config ./server_cert.conf
openssl req -out client.req -key client.key -new \
-config ./client_cert.conf

# generate the actual certs.
openssl x509 -req -in ca.req -out ca.crt \
-sha1 -days 5000 -signkey ca.key
openssl x509 -req -in server.req -out server.crt \
-sha1 -CAcreateserial -days 5000 \
-CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key
openssl x509 -req -in client.req -out client.crt \
-sha1 -CAcreateserial -days 5000 \
-CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key



openssl x509 -in ca.crt -outform DER -out ca.der
openssl x509 -in server.crt -outform DER -out server.der
openssl x509 -in client.crt -outform DER -out client.der


mv ca.crt ca.key ca/
mv server.crt server.key server/
mv client.crt client.key client/

mv ca.der server.der client.der certDER/

rm *.conf
rm *.req
rm *.srl

终端执行:
$./makefile.sh
注意!
a) 将 192.168.111.100 改为你自己的 server 地址
b) 将 192.168.111.101 改为你自己的 client 地址
c) 生成的证书路径需提供给3.2节中 mosquitto.conf 配置
本地生成双向认证的证书和私钥文件。
rmfile.sh
rm ca/ -rf
rm certDER/ -rf
rm client/ -rf
rm server/ -rf
$./rmfile.sh
删除产生过的TLS相关文件。

3.2 mosquitto.conf 配置

mosquitto配置文件 mosquitto.conf 可以丰富的配置 MQTT broker,如配置 keep-alive时间,配置服务器端口号等。
通常mosquitto安装完,配置文件在 /etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf。
如果您没有此文件,需将下面配置文件放在 /etc/mosquitto/ 目录下。
mosquitto.conf
# Config file for mosquitto
#
# See mosquitto.conf(5) for more information.
#
# Default values are shown, uncomment to change.
#
# Use the # character to indicate a comment, but only if it is the
# very first character on the line.

# =================================================================
# General configuration
# =================================================================

# Time in seconds to wait before resending an outgoing QoS=1 or
# QoS=2 message.
#retry_interval 20

# Time in seconds between updates of the $SYS tree.
# Set to 0 to disable the publishing of the $SYS tree.
#sys_interval 10

# Time in seconds between cleaning the internal message store of
# unreferenced messages. Lower values will result in lower memory
# usage but more processor time, higher values will have the
# opposite effect.
# Setting a value of 0 means the unreferenced messages will be
# disposed of as quickly as possible.
#store_clean_interval 10

# Write process id to a file. Default is a blank string which means
# a pid file shouldn't be written.
# This should be set to /var/run/mosquitto.pid if mosquitto is
# being run automatically on boot with an init script and
# start-stop-daemon or similar.
#pid_file

# When run as root, drop privileges to this user and its primary
# group.
# Leave blank to stay as root, but this is not recommended.
# If run as a non-root user, this setting has no effect.
# Note that on Windows this has no effect and so mosquitto should
# be started by the user you wish it to run as.
#user mosquitto

# The maximum number of QoS 1 and 2 messages currently inflight per
# client.
# This includes messages that are partway through handshakes and
# those that are being retried. Defaults to 20. Set to 0 for no
# maximum. Setting to 1 will guarantee in-order delivery of QoS 1
# and 2 messages.
#max_inflight_messages 20

# The maximum number of QoS 1 and 2 messages to hold in a queue
# above those that are currently in-flight. Defaults to 100. Set
# to 0 for no maximum (not recommended).
# See also queue_qos0_messages.
#max_queued_messages 100

# Set to true to queue messages with QoS 0 when a persistent client is
# disconnected. These messages are included in the limit imposed by
# max_queued_messages.
# Defaults to false.
# This is a non-standard option for the MQTT v3.1 spec but is allowed in
# v3.1.1.
#queue_qos0_messages false

# This option sets the maximum publish payload size that the broker will allow.
# Received messages that exceed this size will not be accepted by the broker.
# The default value is 0, which means that all valid MQTT messages are
# accepted. MQTT imposes a maximum payload size of 268435455 bytes.
#message_size_limit 0

# This option controls whether a client is allowed to connect with a zero
# length client id or not. This option only affects clients using MQTT v3.1.1
# and later. If set to false, clients connecting with a zero length client id
# are disconnected. If set to true, clients will be allocated a client id by
# the broker. This means it is only useful for clients with clean session set
# to true.
#allow_zero_length_clientid true

# If allow_zero_length_clientid is true, this option allows you to set a prefix
# to automatically generated client ids to aid visibility in logs.
#auto_id_prefix

# This option allows persistent clients (those with clean session set to false)
# to be removed if they do not reconnect within a certain time frame.
#
# This is a non-standard option in MQTT V3.1 but allowed in MQTT v3.1.1.
#
# Badly designed clients may set clean session to false whilst using a randomly
# generated client id. This leads to persistent clients that will never
# reconnect. This option allows these clients to be removed.
#
# The expiration period should be an integer followed by one of h d w m y for
# hour, day, week, month and year respectively. For example
#
# persistent_client_expiration 2m
# persistent_client_expiration 14d
# persistent_client_expiration 1y
#
# The default if not set is to never expire persistent clients.
#persistent_client_expiration

# If a client is subscribed to multiple subscriptions that overlap, e.g. foo/#
# and foo/+/baz , then MQTT expects that when the broker receives a message on
# a topic that matches both subscriptions, such as foo/bar/baz, then the client
# should only receive the message once.
# Mosquitto keeps track of which clients a message has been sent to in order to
# meet this requirement. The allow_duplicate_messages option allows this
# behaviour to be disabled, which may be useful if you have a large number of
# clients subscribed to the same set of topics and are very concerned about
# minimising memory usage.
# It can be safely set to true if you know in advance that your clients will
# never have overlapping subscriptions, otherwise your clients must be able to
# correctly deal with duplicate messages even when then have QoS=2.
#allow_duplicate_messages false

# The MQTT specification requires that the QoS of a message delivered to a
# subscriber is never upgraded to match the QoS of the subscription. Enabling
# this option changes this behaviour. If upgrade_outgoing_qos is set true,
# messages sent to a subscriber will always match the QoS of its subscription.
# This is a non-standard option explicitly disallowed by the spec.
#upgrade_outgoing_qos false

# =================================================================
# Default listener
# =================================================================

# IP address/hostname to bind the default listener to. If not
# given, the default listener will not be bound to a specific
# address and so will be accessible to all network interfaces.
# bind_address ip-address/host name
#bind_address

# Port to use for the default listener.
port 8883

# The maximum number of client connections to allow. This is
# a per listener setting.
# Default is -1, which means unlimited connections.
# Note that other process limits mean that unlimited connections
# are not really possible. Typically the default maximum number of
# connections possible is around 1024.
#max_connections -1

# Choose the protocol to use when listening.
# This can be either mqtt or websockets.
# Websockets support is currently disabled by default at compile time.
# Certificate based TLS may be used with websockets, except that
# only the cafile, certfile, keyfile and ciphers options are supported.
#protocol mqtt

# When a listener is using the websockets protocol, it is possible to serve
# http data as well. Set http_dir to a directory which contains the files you
# wish to serve. If this option is not specified, then no normal http
# connections will be possible.
#http_dir

# Set use_username_as_clientid to true to replace the clientid that a client
# connected with with its username. This allows authentication to be tied to
# the clientid, which means that it is possible to prevent one client
# disconnecting another by using the same clientid.
# If a client connects with no username it will be disconnected as not
# authorised when this option is set to true.
# Do not use in conjunction with clientid_prefixes.
# See also use_identity_as_username.
#use_username_as_clientid

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Certificate based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# The following options can be used to enable SSL/TLS support for
# this listener. Note that the recommended port for MQTT over TLS
# is 8883, but this must be set manually.
#
# See also the mosquitto-tls man page.

# At least one of cafile or capath must be defined. They both
# define methods of accessing the PEM encoded Certificate
# Authority certificates that have signed your server certificate
# and that you wish to trust.
# cafile defines the path to a file containing the CA certificates.
# capath defines a directory that will be searched for files
# containing the CA certificates. For capath to work correctly, the
# certificate files must have ".crt" as the file ending and you must run
# "c_rehash " each time you add/remove a certificate.

cafile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/ca/ca.crt
#capath

# Path to the PEM encoded server certificate.
certfile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/server/server.crt

# Path to the PEM encoded keyfile.
keyfile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/server/server.key

# This option defines the version of the TLS protocol to use for this listener.
# The default value allows v1.2, v1.1 and v1.0, if they are all supported by
# the version of openssl that the broker was compiled against. For openssl >=
# 1.0.1 the valid values are tlsv1.2 tlsv1.1 and tlsv1. For openssl < 1.0.1 the
# valid values are tlsv1.
#tls_version

# By default a TLS enabled listener will operate in a similar fashion to a
# https enabled web server, in that the server has a certificate signed by a CA
# and the client will verify that it is a trusted certificate. The overall aim
# is encryption of the network traffic. By setting require_certificate to true,
# the client must provide a valid certificate in order for the network
# connection to proceed. This allows access to the broker to be controlled
# outside of the mechanisms provided by MQTT.
require_certificate true

# If require_certificate is true, you may set use_identity_as_username to true
# to use the CN value from the client certificate as a username. If this is
# true, the password_file option will not be used for this listener.
use_identity_as_username true

# If you have require_certificate set to true, you can create a certificate
# revocation list file to revoke access to particular client certificates. If
# you have done this, use crlfile to point to the PEM encoded revocation file.
#crlfile

# If you wish to control which encryption ciphers are used, use the ciphers
# option. The list of available ciphers can be optained using the "openssl
# ciphers" command and should be provided in the same format as the output of
# that command.
# If unset defaults to DEFAULT:!aNULL:!eNULL:!LOW:!EXPORT:!SSLv2:@STRENGTH
#ciphers DEFAULT:!aNULL:!eNULL:!LOW:!EXPORT:!SSLv2:@STRENGTH

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Pre-shared-key based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# The following options can be used to enable PSK based SSL/TLS support for
# this listener. Note that the recommended port for MQTT over TLS is 8883, but
# this must be set manually.
#
# See also the mosquitto-tls man page and the "Certificate based SSL/TLS
# support" section. Only one of certificate or PSK encryption support can be
# enabled for any listener.

# The psk_hint option enables pre-shared-key support for this listener and also
# acts as an identifier for this listener. The hint is sent to clients and may
# be used locally to aid authentication. The hint is a free form string that
# doesn't have much meaning in itself, so feel free to be creative.
# If this option is provided, see psk_file to define the pre-shared keys to be
# used or create a security plugin to handle them.
#psk_hint

# Set use_identity_as_username to have the psk identity sent by the client used
# as its username. Authentication will be carried out using the PSK rather than
# the MQTT username/password and so password_file will not be used for this
# listener.
#use_identity_as_username false

# When using PSK, the encryption ciphers used will be chosen from the list of
# available PSK ciphers. If you want to control which ciphers are available,
# use the "ciphers" option. The list of available ciphers can be optained
# using the "openssl ciphers" command and should be provided in the same format
# as the output of that command.
#ciphers

# =================================================================
# Extra listeners
# =================================================================

# Listen on a port/ip address combination. By using this variable
# multiple times, mosquitto can listen on more than one port. If
# this variable is used and neither bind_address nor port given,
# then the default listener will not be started.
# The port number to listen on must be given. Optionally, an ip
# address or host name may be supplied as a second argument. In
# this case, mosquitto will attempt to bind the listener to that
# address and so restrict access to the associated network and
# interface. By default, mosquitto will listen on all interfaces.
# Note that for a websockets listener it is not possible to bind to a host
# name.
# listener port-number [ip address/host name]
#listener

# The maximum number of client connections to allow. This is
# a per listener setting.
# Default is -1, which means unlimited connections.
# Note that other process limits mean that unlimited connections
# are not really possible. Typically the default maximum number of
# connections possible is around 1024.
#max_connections -1

# The listener can be restricted to operating within a topic hierarchy using
# the mount_point option. This is achieved be prefixing the mount_point string
# to all topics for any clients connected to this listener. This prefixing only
# happens internally to the broker; the client will not see the prefix.
#mount_point

# Choose the protocol to use when listening.
# This can be either mqtt or websockets.
# Certificate based TLS may be used with websockets, except that only the
# cafile, certfile, keyfile and ciphers options are supported.
#protocol mqtt

# When a listener is using the websockets protocol, it is possible to serve
# http data as well. Set http_dir to a directory which contains the files you
# wish to serve. If this option is not specified, then no normal http
# connections will be possible.
#http_dir

# Set use_username_as_clientid to true to replace the clientid that a client
# connected with with its username. This allows authentication to be tied to
# the clientid, which means that it is possible to prevent one client
# disconnecting another by using the same clientid.
# If a client connects with no username it will be disconnected as not
# authorised when this option is set to true.
# Do not use in conjunction with clientid_prefixes.
# See also use_identity_as_username.
#use_username_as_clientid

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Certificate based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# The following options can be used to enable certificate based SSL/TLS support
# for this listener. Note that the recommended port for MQTT over TLS is 8883,
# but this must be set manually.
#
# See also the mosquitto-tls man page and the "Pre-shared-key based SSL/TLS
# support" section. Only one of certificate or PSK encryption support can be
# enabled for any listener.

# At least one of cafile or capath must be defined to enable certificate based
# TLS encryption. They both define methods of accessing the PEM encoded
# Certificate Authority certificates that have signed your server certificate
# and that you wish to trust.
# cafile defines the path to a file containing the CA certificates.
# capath defines a directory that will be searched for files
# containing the CA certificates. For capath to work correctly, the
# certificate files must have ".crt" as the file ending and you must run
# "c_rehash " each time you add/remove a certificate.
#cafile
#capath

# Path to the PEM encoded server certificate.
#certfile

# Path to the PEM encoded keyfile.
#keyfile

# By default an TLS enabled listener will operate in a similar fashion to a
# https enabled web server, in that the server has a certificate signed by a CA
# and the client will verify that it is a trusted certificate. The overall aim
# is encryption of the network traffic. By setting require_certificate to true,
# the client must provide a valid certificate in order for the network
# connection to proceed. This allows access to the broker to be controlled
# outside of the mechanisms provided by MQTT.
#require_certificate false

# If require_certificate is true, you may set use_identity_as_username to true
# to use the CN value from the client certificate as a username. If this is
# true, the password_file option will not be used for this listener.
#use_identity_as_username false

# If you have require_certificate set to true, you can create a certificate
# revocation list file to revoke access to particular client certificates. If
# you have done this, use crlfile to point to the PEM encoded revocation file.
#crlfile

# If you wish to control which encryption ciphers are used, use the ciphers
# option. The list of available ciphers can be optained using the "openssl
# ciphers" command and should be provided in the same format as the output of
# that command.
#ciphers

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Pre-shared-key based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# The following options can be used to enable PSK based SSL/TLS support for
# this listener. Note that the recommended port for MQTT over TLS is 8883, but
# this must be set manually.
#
# See also the mosquitto-tls man page and the "Certificate based SSL/TLS
# support" section. Only one of certificate or PSK encryption support can be
# enabled for any listener.

# The psk_hint option enables pre-shared-key support for this listener and also
# acts as an identifier for this listener. The hint is sent to clients and may
# be used locally to aid authentication. The hint is a free form string that
# doesn't have much meaning in itself, so feel free to be creative.
# If this option is provided, see psk_file to define the pre-shared keys to be
# used or create a security plugin to handle them.
#psk_hint

# Set use_identity_as_username to have the psk identity sent by the client used
# as its username. Authentication will be carried out using the PSK rather than
# the MQTT username/password and so password_file will not be used for this
# listener.
#use_identity_as_username false

# When using PSK, the encryption ciphers used will be chosen from the list of
# available PSK ciphers. If you want to control which ciphers are available,
# use the "ciphers" option. The list of available ciphers can be optained
# using the "openssl ciphers" command and should be provided in the same format
# as the output of that command.
#ciphers

# =================================================================
# Persistence
# =================================================================

# If persistence is enabled, save the in-memory database to disk
# every autosave_interval seconds. If set to 0, the persistence
# database will only be written when mosquitto exits. See also
# autosave_on_changes.
# Note that writing of the persistence database can be forced by
# sending mosquitto a SIGUSR1 signal.
#autosave_interval 1800

# If true, mosquitto will count the number of subscription changes, retained
# messages received and queued messages and if the total exceeds
# autosave_interval then the in-memory database will be saved to disk.
# If false, mosquitto will save the in-memory database to disk by treating
# autosave_interval as a time in seconds.
#autosave_on_changes false

# Save persistent message data to disk (true/false).
# This saves information about all messages, including
# subscriptions, currently in-flight messages and retained
# messages.
# retained_persistence is a synonym for this option.
#persistence false

# The filename to use for the persistent database, not including
# the path.
#persistence_file mosquitto.db

# Location for persistent database. Must include trailing /
# Default is an empty string (current directory).
# Set to e.g. /var/lib/mosquitto/ if running as a proper service on Linux or
# similar.
#persistence_location

# =================================================================
# Logging
# =================================================================

# Places to log to. Use multiple log_dest lines for multiple
# logging destinations.
# Possible destinations are: stdout stderr syslog topic file
#
# stdout and stderr log to the console on the named output.
#
# syslog uses the userspace syslog facility which usually ends up
# in /var/log/messages or similar.
#
# topic logs to the broker topic '$SYS/broker/log/',
# where severity is one of D, E, W, N, I, M which are debug, error,
# warning, notice, information and message. Message type severity is used by
# the subscribe/unsubscribe log_types and publishes log messages to
# $SYS/broker/log/M/susbcribe or $SYS/broker/log/M/unsubscribe.
#
# The file destination requires an additional parameter which is the file to be
# logged to, e.g. "log_dest file /var/log/mosquitto.log". The file will be
# closed and reopened when the broker receives a HUP signal. Only a single file
# destination may be configured.
#
# Note that if the broker is running as a Windows service it will default to
# "log_dest none" and neither stdout nor stderr logging is available.
# Use "log_dest none" if you wish to disable logging.
#log_dest stderr

# If using syslog logging (not on Windows), messages will be logged to the
# "daemon" facility by default. Use the log_facility option to choose which of
# local0 to local7 to log to instead. The option value should be an integer
# value, e.g. "log_facility 5" to use local5.
#log_facility

# Types of messages to log. Use multiple log_type lines for logging
# multiple types of messages.
# Possible types are: debug, error, warning, notice, information,
# none, subscribe, unsubscribe, websockets, all.
# Note that debug type messages are for decoding the incoming/outgoing
# network packets. They are not logged in "topics".
#log_type error
#log_type warning
#log_type notice
#log_type information

# Change the websockets logging level. This is a global option, it is not
# possible to set per listener. This is an integer that is interpreted by
# libwebsockets as a bit mask for its lws_log_levels enum. See the
# libwebsockets documentation for more details. "log_type websockets" must also
# be enabled.
#websockets_log_level 0

# If set to true, client connection and disconnection messages will be included
# in the log.
#connection_messages true

# If set to true, add a timestamp value to each log message.
#log_timestamp true

# =================================================================
# Security
# =================================================================

# If set, only clients that have a matching prefix on their
# clientid will be allowed to connect to the broker. By default,
# all clients may connect.
# For example, setting "secure-" here would mean a client "secure-
# client" could connect but another with clientid "mqtt" couldn't.
#clientid_prefixes

# Boolean value that determines whether clients that connect
# without providing a username are allowed to connect. If set to
# false then a password file should be created (see the
# password_file option) to control authenticated client access.
# Defaults to true.
#allow_anonymous true

# In addition to the clientid_prefixes, allow_anonymous and TLS
# authentication options, username based authentication is also
# possible. The default support is described in "Default
# authentication and topic access control" below. The auth_plugin
# allows another authentication method to be used.
# Specify the path to the loadable plugin and see the
# "Authentication and topic access plugin options" section below.
#auth_plugin

# If auth_plugin_deny_special_chars is true, the default, then before an ACL
# check is made, the username/client id of the client needing the check is
# searched for the presence of either a '+' or '#' character. If either of
# these characters is found in either the username or client id, then the ACL
# check is denied before it is sent to the plugin.o
#
# This check prevents the case where a malicious user could circumvent an ACL
# check by using one of these characters as their username or client id. This
# is the same issue as was reported with mosquitto itself as CVE-2017-7650.
#
# If you are entirely sure that the plugin you are using is not vulnerable to
# this attack (i.e. if you never use usernames or client ids in topics) then
# you can disable this extra check and have all ACL checks delivered to your
# plugin by setting auth_plugin_deny_special_chars to false.
#auth_plugin_deny_special_chars true

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Default authentication and topic access control
# -----------------------------------------------------------------

# Control access to the broker using a password file. This file can be
# generated using the mosquitto_passwd utility. If TLS support is not compiled
# into mosquitto (it is recommended that TLS support should be included) then
# plain text passwords are used, in which case the file should be a text file
# with lines in the format:
# username:password
# The password (and colon) may be omitted if desired, although this
# offers very little in the way of security.
#
# See the TLS client require_certificate and use_identity_as_username options
# for alternative authentication options.
#password_file

# Access may also be controlled using a pre-shared-key file. This requires
# TLS-PSK support and a listener configured to use it. The file should be text
# lines in the format:
# identity:key
# The key should be in hexadecimal format without a leading "0x".
#psk_file

# Control access to topics on the broker using an access control list
# file. If this parameter is defined then only the topics listed will
# have access.
# If the first character of a line of the ACL file is a # it is treated as a
# comment.
# Topic access is added with lines of the format:
#
# topic [read|write|readwrite]
#
# The access type is controlled using "read", "write" or "readwrite". This
# parameter is optional (unless contains a space character) - if not
# given then the access is read/write. can contain the + or #
# wildcards as in subscriptions.
#
# The first set of topics are applied to anonymous clients, assuming
# allow_anonymous is true. User specific topic ACLs are added after a
# user line as follows:
#
# user
#
# The username referred to here is the same as in password_file. It is
# not the clientid.
#
#
# If is also possible to define ACLs based on pattern substitution within the
# topic. The patterns available for substition are:
#
# %c to match the client id of the client
# %u to match the username of the client
#
# The substitution pattern must be the only text for that level of hierarchy.
#
# The form is the same as for the topic keyword, but using pattern as the
# keyword.
# Pattern ACLs apply to all users even if the "user" keyword has previously
# been given.
#
# If using bridges with usernames and ACLs, connection messages can be allowed
# with the following pattern:
# pattern write $SYS/broker/connection/%c/state
#
# pattern [read|write|readwrite]
#
# Example:
#
# pattern write sensor/%u/data
#
#acl_file

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Authentication and topic access plugin options
# -----------------------------------------------------------------

# If the auth_plugin option above is used, define options to pass to the
# plugin here as described by the plugin instructions. All options named
# using the format auth_opt_* will be passed to the plugin, for example:
#
# auth_opt_db_host
# auth_opt_db_port
# auth_opt_db_username
# auth_opt_db_password


# =================================================================
# Bridges
# =================================================================

# A bridge is a way of connecting multiple MQTT brokers together.
# Create a new bridge using the "connection" option as described below. Set
# options for the bridges using the remaining parameters. You must specify the
# address and at least one topic to subscribe to.
# Each connection must have a unique name.
# The address line may have multiple host address and ports specified. See
# below in the round_robin description for more details on bridge behaviour if
# multiple addresses are used.
# The direction that the topic will be shared can be chosen by
# specifying out, in or both, where the default value is out.
# The QoS level of the bridged communication can be specified with the next
# topic option. The default QoS level is 0, to change the QoS the topic
# direction must also be given.
# The local and remote prefix options allow a topic to be remapped when it is
# bridged to/from the remote broker. This provides the ability to place a topic
# tree in an appropriate location.
# For more details see the mosquitto.conf man page.
# Multiple topics can be specified per connection, but be careful
# not to create any loops.
# If you are using bridges with cleansession set to false (the default), then
# you may get unexpected behaviour from incoming topics if you change what
# topics you are subscribing to. This is because the remote broker keeps the
# subscription for the old topic. If you have this problem, connect your bridge
# with cleansession set to true, then reconnect with cleansession set to false
# as normal.
#connection
#address [:] [[:]]
#topic [[[out | in | both] qos-level] local-prefix remote-prefix]

# Set the version of the MQTT protocol to use with for this bridge. Can be one
# of mqttv31 or mqttv311. Defaults to mqttv31.
#bridge_protocol_version mqttv31

# If a bridge has topics that have "out" direction, the default behaviour is to
# send an unsubscribe request to the remote broker on that topic. This means
# that changing a topic direction from "in" to "out" will not keep receiving
# incoming messages. Sending these unsubscribe requests is not always
# desirable, setting bridge_attempt_unsubscribe to false will disable sending
# the unsubscribe request.
#bridge_attempt_unsubscribe true

# If the bridge has more than one address given in the address/addresses
# configuration, the round_robin option defines the behaviour of the bridge on
# a failure of the bridge connection. If round_robin is false, the default
# value, then the first address is treated as the main bridge connection. If
# the connection fails, the other secondary addresses will be attempted in
# turn. Whilst connected to a secondary bridge, the bridge will periodically
# attempt to reconnect to the main bridge until successful.
# If round_robin is true, then all addresses are treated as equals. If a
# connection fails, the next address will be tried and if successful will
# remain connected until it fails
#round_robin false

# Set the client id to use on the remote end of this bridge connection. If not
# defined, this defaults to 'name.hostname' where name is the connection name
# and hostname is the hostname of this computer.
# This replaces the old "clientid" option to avoid confusion. "clientid"
# remains valid for the time being.
#remote_clientid

# Set the clientid to use on the local broker. If not defined, this defaults to
# 'local.'. If you are bridging a broker to itself, it is important
# that local_clientid and clientid do not match.
#local_clientid

# Set the clean session variable for this bridge.
# When set to true, when the bridge disconnects for any reason, all
# messages and subscriptions will be cleaned up on the remote
# broker. Note that with cleansession set to true, there may be a
# significant amount of retained messages sent when the bridge
# reconnects after losing its connection.
# When set to false, the subscriptions and messages are kept on the
# remote broker, and delivered when the bridge reconnects.
#cleansession false

# If set to true, publish notification messages to the local and remote brokers
# giving information about the state of the bridge connection. Retained
# messages are published to the topic $SYS/broker/connection//state
# unless the notification_topic option is used.
# If the message is 1 then the connection is active, or 0 if the connection has
# failed.
#notifications true

# Choose the topic on which notification messages for this bridge are
# published. If not set, messages are published on the topic
# $SYS/broker/connection//state
#notification_topic

# Set the keepalive interval for this bridge connection, in
# seconds.
#keepalive_interval 60

# Set the start type of the bridge. This controls how the bridge starts and
# can be one of three types: automatic, lazy and once. Note that RSMB provides
# a fourth start type "manual" which isn't currently supported by mosquitto.
#
# "automatic" is the default start type and means that the bridge connection
# will be started automatically when the broker starts and also restarted
# after a short delay (30 seconds) if the connection fails.
#
# Bridges using the "lazy" start type will be started automatically when the
# number of queued messages exceeds the number set with the "threshold"
# parameter. It will be stopped automatically after the time set by the
# "idle_timeout" parameter. Use this start type if you wish the connection to
# only be active when it is needed.
#
# A bridge using the "once" start type will be started automatically when the
# broker starts but will not be restarted if the connection fails.
#start_type automatic

# Set the amount of time a bridge using the automatic start type will wait
# until attempting to reconnect. Defaults to 30 seconds.
#restart_timeout 30

# Set the amount of time a bridge using the lazy start type must be idle before
# it will be stopped. Defaults to 60 seconds.
#idle_timeout 60

# Set the number of messages that need to be queued for a bridge with lazy
# start type to be restarted. Defaults to 10 messages.
# Must be less than max_queued_messages.
#threshold 10

# If try_private is set to true, the bridge will attempt to indicate to the
# remote broker that it is a bridge not an ordinary client. If successful, this
# means that loop detection will be more effective and that retained messages
# will be propagated correctly. Not all brokers support this feature so it may
# be necessary to set try_private to false if your bridge does not connect
# properly.
#try_private true

# Set the username to use when connecting to a broker that requires
# authentication.
# This replaces the old "username" option to avoid confusion. "username"
# remains valid for the time being.
#remote_username

# Set the password to use when connecting to a broker that requires
# authentication. This option is only used if remote_username is also set.
# This replaces the old "password" option to avoid confusion. "password"
# remains valid for the time being.
#remote_password

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Certificate based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Either bridge_cafile or bridge_capath must be defined to enable TLS support
# for this bridge.
# bridge_cafile defines the path to a file containing the
# Certificate Authority certificates that have signed the remote broker
# certificate.
# bridge_capath defines a directory that will be searched for files containing
# the CA certificates. For bridge_capath to work correctly, the certificate
# files must have ".crt" as the file ending and you must run "c_rehash
# capath>" each time you add/remove a certificate.
#bridge_cafile
#bridge_capath

# Path to the PEM encoded client certificate, if required by the remote broker.
#bridge_certfile

# Path to the PEM encoded client private key, if required by the remote broker.
#bridge_keyfile

# When using certificate based encryption, bridge_insecure disables
# verification of the server hostname in the server certificate. This can be
# useful when testing initial server configurations, but makes it possible for
# a malicious third party to impersonate your server through DNS spoofing, for
# example. Use this option in testing only. If you need to resort to using this
# option in a production environment, your setup is at fault and there is no
# point using encryption.
#bridge_insecure false

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# PSK based SSL/TLS support
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Pre-shared-key encryption provides an alternative to certificate based
# encryption. A bridge can be configured to use PSK with the bridge_identity
# and bridge_psk options. These are the client PSK identity, and pre-shared-key
# in hexadecimal format with no "0x". Only one of certificate and PSK based
# encryption can be used on one
# bridge at once.
#bridge_identity
#bridge_psk


# =================================================================
# External config files
# =================================================================

# External configuration files may be included by using the
# include_dir option. This defines a directory that will be searched
# for config files. All files that end in '.conf' will be loaded as
# a configuration file. It is best to have this as the last option
# in the main file. This option will only be processed from the main
# configuration file. The directory specified must not contain the
# main configuration file.
#include_dir

# =================================================================
# rsmb options - unlikely to ever be supported
# =================================================================

#ffdc_output
#max_log_entries
#trace_level
#trace_output

注意!!!
根据单向认证和双向认证需要,可能需修改的字段有:
a) port 8883 // MQTT服务器将选择此端口 listen
b) cafile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/ca/ca.crt
双向认证必须配置为你的CA证书
单向认证(通常认为是client校验server证书,下同)可选配置
单向认证中,server 和 client 端 ca 配置必须保持一致。即 server 若配置 ca.crt ,则 client 必须配置 ca.crt, server 不配置ca.crt ,client 也不可配置 ca.crt
路径必须为绝对路径!!!
c) certfile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/server/server.crt
单项认证和双向认证都必须配置为你的server证书
d) keyfile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/server/server.key
单项认证和双向认证都必须配置为你的server私钥
e) require_certificate true
单向认证需设置为 false,注释此行,默认也是 false
双向认证必须配置为true
f) use_identity_as_username true
单向认证设置为 false,注释此行,默认也是 false
双向认证通常设置为true
本人双向认证的mosquitto.conf 配置如下:
单向认证只需要注释下面两行即可:
#require_certificate true
#use_identity_as_username true
1
2

3.3 MQTT 双向认证 server 启动

我们将Ubuntu作为我们的server:
-c /etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf //设置mosquitto配置文件
-v // 调试模式,可查看更多的log信息
mosquitto 版本: 1.4.14
listen 端口: 8883

四: mosquitto 客户端SSL/TLS配置

4.1 MQTT订阅段设置

我们将Ubuntu作为我们的subscribe client,直接shell中订阅:
$mosquitto_sub -h 192.168.111.100 -p 8883 -t "/plant/peanut/UpdateTemperature" --cafile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/ca/ca.crt --cert /home/chenwu/TLSDir/client/client.crt --key /home/chenwu/TLSDir/client/client.key
mosquitto_sub 订阅
-h 订阅MQTT broker 的 IP地址
-p 端口号
-t topic 订阅主题
–cafile CA证书位置
–cert client证书位置 // 单向认证中不需要此字段
–key client私钥位置 // 单向认证中不需要此字段
结果如下图:
在订阅消息之后,会收到来自4.2节publish client发布的消息.
temperature:15

4.2 MQTT发布端设置

我们同样将Ubuntu作为我们的发布端,shell中publish MQTT消息
$mosquitto_pub -h 192.168.111.100 -p 8883 -t "/plant/peanut/UpdateTemperature" -m "temperature:15" --cafile /home/chenwu/TLSDir/ca/ca.crt --cert /home/chenwu/TLSDir/client/client.crt --key /home/chenwu/TLSDir/client/client.key
-h MQTT broker 主机的IP地址
-p MQTT broker listen的端口号
-t 发布主题topic
-m 发布消息message
–cafile CA证书文件,pem格式
–cert client证书文件 // 单向认证不需要此字段
–key client私钥文件 // 单向认证不需要此字段
如图:

4.3 MQTT broker 状态

New client connected from 192.168.111.100 as mosqsub…//订阅段连接
New client connected from 192.168.111.100 as mosqpub… //发布端连接
Sending PINGRESP to mosqsub|13652-chenwu // 发送心跳包
Received PINGREQ from mosqsub|13652-chenwu //收到心跳包